Docker Compose In Practice

Continue to advance to Kubernetes, the last article Docker Swarm In Action, After understanding Swarm, it is necessary to get familiar with Docker Compose. Docker Swarm forms a cluster of Docker hosts. As long as the Manager node is notified when the service is deployed, it will automatically find the corresponding node to run containers. Compose is another concept entirely. It organizes multiple associated containers into a whole for deployment, such as a load balance container, multiple web containers, and a Redis cache container to make up a whole bundle.

Revealed by its name, Compose, the concept of container orchestration was officially established. Later, Kubernetes, which we will learn, it's a tool for higher-level organization, operation and management of containers. Because Compose organizes the containers, it can start multiple associated containers with one command, instead of starting one container separately.

Regarding the installation of Docker Compose, Docker Desktop under Mac OS X comes with docker-compose; since Docker Compose is written in Python, we can use  pip install docker-compose  to install it, and use its commands after installation docker-compose. 阅读全文 >>

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Docker Swarm In Action

Before officially entering into Kubernetes, I hope to know something about the earlier Docker Swarm, although it is basically no long used currently. Swarm provides a cluster of Docker hosts. There is at least one Manager (or more) in the cluster, plus 0 or more Workers. The main idea is that a Docker service (container) is executed by the Swarm cluster manager, and it will find the corresponding host in the cluster to execute the container. Both Manager and Worker can to run Docker containers, but only Manager can execute management commands.

The following two pictures shows the difference between running Docker containers on a host and a Swarm cluster host.

Run all containers in one host   => Run container together

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Introduce Vagrant and common usages

Many of my demos about Kafka, Docker, Python, Kubernates, and etc. are made with Vagrant virtual machines. It is time to write a blog for some frequently used Vagrant commands. Vagrant is a member of the HashiCorp family. Others of HashiCorp's famous tools include  Terraform , Consul ,  Vault , Boundary , Packer , Nomad and Waypoint . 

Speaking of Vagrant, I have to mention the similar Docker, in fact, they are quite different, while they both give people the external feeling that they are command line control Linux. Vagrant is essentially a virtual machine shell, allowing us to use Vagrant commands to interact with the virtual machine more conveniently, instead of switching back and forth between the host machine and the virtual machine, it is more convenient to manage multiple virtual machines in one single terminal; while Docker is a container, The essence of a container is a process on the host machine, but it is isolated from the file system, process, network, etc. of the process with a namespace, making the container process look like a virtual OS.

Vagrant is a tool for the development environment, and Docker is a tool for the deployment environment; Vagrant operates a standard Linux or Windows operating system, and the Docker is very critical on image size. Docker image is usually a trimmed system, just has necessary command to run our service. Since Vagrant corresponds to a virtual machine, the operation status with Vagrant and the installed software will be retained after Vagrant virtual machine shutdown, while the operations status in Docker are all for the current container (copy-on-write), which does not affect the corresponding image , Unless it is committed as a new image with docker commit.

Understand that Vagrant is just the shell of a virtual machine, so it requires different virtual machine implementations, such as VirtualBox, Hyper-V, VMware, etc., and we can use Vagrant to interact with Docker as well. Vagrant can support multiple Operation Systems. 阅读全文 >>

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AWS Session Manager connect to EC2 instance

The most common way to manage a remote machine is SSH (Unix/Linux, Mac) or PowerShell/RDP (Windows), which requires the remote machine to open the corresponding access port and firewall, credentials or SSH Key. When selecting an EC2 instance on AWS console, we can click the "Connect" button, which provides three connection options:

  1. EC2 Instance Connect: Requires EC2 to be configured with SSH Key, sshd is started, ssh inbound port allowed by Security Group, ec2-instance-connect installed(sudo yum install ec2-instance-connect)
  2. Session Manager: This is what we are going to talk about next. sshd is not required(SSH key is not needed of cause). Security Group only requires outbound port 443. 
  3. SSH client: Client SSH to EC2 instance, start sshd, allow inbound ssh port 22 by Security Group, use SSH Key or username and password in AMI, or configure to login with domain account after joining the domain.

AWS Session Manager provides access to EC2 instances through a browser or AWS CLI, and even machines or virtual machines in the local datacenter (requires advanced-instances tier support) , and no longer depends on SSH.

Session Manager Overview

Session Manager determines who can or cannot be accessed by the IAM access policy. It can be forwarded through the local port, the operation log in the session can be recorded as an audit, and can configure to send a message to Amazon EventBridge or SQS when session open or closed. The session log encrypted by a KMS key. 阅读全文 >>

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为 Java 注册 classpath: 协议用 URL 读取文件

 本文为 Java 注册 classpath 协议读取文件的目的就是要让下面的代码能工作起来

假设在 classpath 下有个文件 db.properties, 比如在 Maven 项目的 src/main/resources 目录中,或是在某个 jar 包的根位置。如果我们直接执行上面的代码将会得到异常

Exception in thread "main" java.net.MalformedURLException: unknown protocol: classpath
    at java.net.URL.<init>(URL.java:617)
    at java.net.URL.<init>(URL.java:507)

说是不认识的 classpath 协议。

前面代码是有实际用途的,比如说我们使用 XML 时就能支持远程协议

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